Club of Madrid

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Club of Madrid
Club of Madrid logo.png
HeadquartersMadrid, Spain
Vice Presidents

The Club de Madrid is an independent non-profit organization created to promote democracy and change in the international community. Composed of 95 regular members, 64 of whom are former presidents and 39 of whom are former prime ministers (some are both)[1] from 65 countries, the Club de Madrid is the world's largest forum of former heads of state and government.[2]

Among its main goals are the strengthening of democratic institutions and counselling on the resolution of political conflicts in two key areas: democratic leadership and governance, and response to crisis and post-crisis situations.[2]

The Club de Madrid works together with governments, inter-governmental organizations, civil society, scholars and representatives from the business world, to encourage dialogue in order to foster social and political change. The Club de Madrid also searches for effective methods to provide technical advice and recommendations to nations that are taking steps to establish democracy.


As of March 2014, there are 95 full Members, all of whom are previous government officials with full voting rights. The Club also has institutional members and foundations – private and public organizations that share similar democratic objectives, including FRIDE, the Gorbachev Foundation of North America (GFNA), both original sponsors of the founding conference in 2001, the Madrid City Council, the Regional Government of Madrid, and the Government of Spain. Additionally, there are six honorary members (e.g. Kofi Annan, Aung San Suu Kyi) and a number of fellows, who are experts on democratic change.

The Club is based in Madrid (Spain), although meetings are held worldwide. Currently, Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, the former President of Latvia (1999–2007), is the organization's president, and it has two vice presidents: Jenny Shipley (New Zealand) and Jorge Fernando Quiroga (Bolivia). A former president of the Club of Madrid is Wim Kok (2009–2013).

The Club was created from an event that was held in October 2001 in Madrid, a four-day Conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation (CDTC). This event brought together 35 world leaders, over 100 academics and policy specialists from Europe, the Americas, Asia, and Africa to discuss ideas and means of implementation from both objective and subjective perspectives. The conference discussed eight main topics:

  • Constitutional design
  • The Legislative branch and its relation with the Executive branch
  • The Judicial branch and its relation with Executive branch
  • Anti-corruption procedures
  • The role of the armed forces and security forces
  • Reform of the state bureaucracy
  • Strengthening of political and social pluralism and of political parties
  • Economic and social conditions

Structure and organization[edit]

The Club de Madrid's primary asset is its membership, which includes 95 distinguished former heads of state and government of democratic nations. The comparative advantage of the Club de Madrid is based on the following key assets:

  • Personal experience and status of its Members
  • Access to the world's leading experts on democracy
  • Specialization in democratic transition and consolidation issues
  • Practical approach of its activities, through the implementation of projects with tangible results

Full Members are members of the Club de Madrid who provide their personal and political experience as former Heads of State and Government. Their appointment, based on a proposal from the Board of Directors, is approved by the General Assembly.

Direct exchanges with current leaders of countries in the process of democratic transition on a peer-to-peer basis, and the Member's ability to deliver the right message at the right time, are two of the major assets of the Club de Madrid.[2] In this sense, the Members of the Club de Madrid can also help focus much needed international attention on targeted countries and leverage the work of other institutions trying to promote democracy.

The Club's members are supported by a network of world-class experts who work together to offer assistance on a range of democratic reform issues. The Club de Madrid is composed of four executive and advisory bodies:

  • General Assembly
  • Board of Directors
  • General Secretariat
  • Advisory Committee

Funding sources[edit]

The Club is a non-profit organisation and members offer their services on a pro bono basis. It relies financially on donations which are used to support a permanent secretariat and fund some specific project. The Club's accounts are audited annually by an external organisation.

The Club of Madrid Foundation (USA)[edit]

The Club of Madrid Foundation Inc. (COMFI) is a grant-making foundation that has US 501(c)(3) tax exemption status. It exists to raise funds in support of the Club's charitable and educational activities.

COMFI is independent and not controlled by the Club itself, but solely by a four-person Board of Directors, all of whom reside in the US.


Several members of the Club played prominent roles in the diplomatic and military proceedings aimed at ending the wars in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s:

List of current members[edit]

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
Valdas Adamkus in 2005.JPEG Valdas Adamkus 94  Lithuania None President of Lithuania (1998–2003, 2004–2009)
Esko Aho-crop.jpg Esko Aho 67  Finland Centre Prime Minister of Finland (1991–1995)
Martti Ahtisaari, tidigare president Finland och mottagare av Nobels fredrspris (2).jpg Martti Ahtisaari 83  Finland Social Democratic President of Finland (1994–2000)
Óscar Arias.jpg Óscar Arias 80  Costa Rica PLN President of Costa Rica (1986–1990, 2006–2010)
Hamadi Jebali - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012-1.jpg Hamadi Jebali 71  Tunisia Ennahdha (until 2014)

None (since 2014)

Head of Government of Tunisia (2011–2013)
Mehdi Jomaa 2013-06-18.jpg Mehdi Jomaa 59  Tunisia None (until 2017)

Tunisian Alternative (since 2017)

Head of Government of Tunisia (2014–2015)
Aznar at the Azores, March 17, 2003.jpg José María Aznar 68  Spain PP President of the Government of Spain (1996–2004)
Michele Bachelet (2009).jpg Michelle Bachelet 69  Chile Socialist President of Chile (2006–2010, 2014–2018)
Executive Director of UN Women (2010–2013)
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (2018–)
Rupiah Banda.jpg Rupiah Banda 84  Zambia MMD President of Zambia (2008–2011)
Carl Bildt under nationaldagsfirande vid Skansen 2009.jpg Carl Bildt 71  Sweden Moderate Prime Minister of Sweden (1991–1994)
High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995–1997)
Valdis Birkavs 2011-08-20.jpg Valdis Birkavs 78  Latvia LC Prime Minister of Latvia (1993–1994)
KjellMagneBondevik.JPG Kjell Magne Bondevik 73  Norway Christian Democratic Prime Minister of Norway (1997–2000, 2001–2005)
Gro Harlem Brundtland1 2007 04 20.jpg Gro Harlem Brundtland 82  Norway Labour Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–1989, 1990–1996)
Director-General of the World Health Organization (1998–2003)
BrutonJohn.png John Bruton 74  Ireland Fine Gael Taoiseach of Ireland (1994–1997)
EU Ambassador to the United States (2004–2009)
Jerzy Buzek, 2010.JPG Jerzy Buzek 80  Poland Civic Platform Prime Minister of Poland (1997–2001)
President of the European Parliament (2009–2012)
Felipe Calderon 20090130.jpg Felipe Calderón 58  Mexico PAN President of Mexico (2006–2012)
Micheline Calmy-Rey 2011.jpg Micheline Calmy-Rey 75   Switzerland Social Democratic Member of the Federal Council (2003–2011)
(President in 2007 and 2011)
KimCampbell.jpg Kim Campbell 74  Canada Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of Canada (1993)
Fhc-color.jpg Fernando Henrique Cardoso 89  Brazil Social Democracy President of Brazil (1995–2003)
Cavaco Silva 2007.jpg Aníbal Cavaco Silva 81  Portugal Social Democratic Prime Minister of Portugal (1985–1995)
President of Portugal (2006–2016)
Joaquim Chissano.jpg Joaquim Chissano 81  Mozambique FRELIMO President of Mozambique (1986–2005)
Jean Chrétien 2010.jpg Jean Chrétien 87  Canada Liberal Prime Minister of Canada (1993–2003)
Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton 74  United States Democratic President of the United States (1993–2001)
Dimitrov.JPG Philip Dimitrov 66  Bulgaria SDS Prime Minister of Bulgaria (1991–1992)
Luisa Diogo, World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2009 1.jpg Luísa Diogo 63  Mozambique FRELIMO Prime Minister of Mozambique (2004–2010)
Leonel Fernandez Reyna.jpg Leonel Fernández 67  Dominican Republic PLD President of the Dominican Republic (1996–2000, 2004–2012)
José María Figueres.jpg José María Figueres 66  Costa Rica PLN President of Costa Rica (1994–1998)
Vigdis Finnbogadottir (1985).jpg Vigdís Finnbogadóttir 91  Iceland None President of Iceland (1980–1996)
Vicente Fox flag.jpg Vicente Fox 78  Mexico PAN President of Mexico (2000–2006)
Eduardo Frei Chiledebate.jpg Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle 78  Chile Christian Democratic President of Chile (1994–2000)
Yasuo Fukuda - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2008 cropped.JPG Yasuo Fukuda 84  Japan Liberal Democratic Prime Minister of Japan (2007–2008)
César Gaviria, World Economic Forum on Latin America 2009.jpg César Gaviria 74  Colombia Liberal President of Colombia (1990–1994)
Secretary General of the Organization of American States (1994–2004)
Amine Gemayel 2007.jpg Amine Pierre Gemayel 79  Lebanon Kata'eb President of Lebanon (1982–1988)
Felipe González 2015 (cropped).jpg Felipe González 79  Spain PSOE President of the Government of Spain (1982–1996)
RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev (crop).jpg Mikhail Gorbachev 90  Russia
 Soviet Union
Communist (until 1991) General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985–1991)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet/President of the Soviet Union (1988–1991)
Alfred Gusenbauer (Erster Mai 2006).jpg Alfred Gusenbauer 61  Austria Social Democratic Chancellor of Austria (2007–2008)
António Guterres.jpg António Guterres 72  Portugal Socialist Prime Minister of Portugal (1995–2002)
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2005–2016)
UN Secretary-General (2016–present)
Tarja Halonen 1c389 8827-2.jpg Tarja Halonen 77  Finland Social Democratic President of Finland (2000–2012)
Han Seung-Soo - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2009.jpg Han Seung-soo 84  South Korea Saenuri Prime Minister of South Korea (2008–2009)
Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea (cropped).jpg Osvaldo Hurtado 81  Ecuador Christian Democratic President of Ecuador (1981–1984)
Alain Juppé in Washington DC.jpg Alain Juppé 75  France UMP Prime Minister of France (1995–1997)
Koehlerhorst08032007.jpg Horst Köhler 78  Germany Christian Democratic President of Germany (2004–2010)
Konare27022007.jpg Alpha Oumar Konaré 75  Mali ADEMA-PASJ President of Mali (1992–2002)
Chairman of the AU Commission (2003–2008)
Milan Kucan.jpg Milan Kucan 80  Slovenia
Communist (until 1990)
None (since 1990)
President of Slovenia (1991–2002)
John Agyekum Kufuor - World Economic Forum on Africa 2008.jpg John Kufuor 82  Ghana NPP President of Ghana (2001–2009)
Chairman of the AU (2007–2008)
Chandrika Kumaratunga.jpg Chandrika Kumaratunga 75  Sri Lanka SLFP President of Sri Lanka (1994–2005)
Aleksander kwasniewski konferencja.jpg Aleksander Kwasniewski 66  Poland None (since 1995) President of Poland (1995–2005)
Luisalbertolacalle2.jpg Luis Alberto Lacalle 79  Uruguay PN President of Uruguay (1990–1995)
Ricardo Lagos - Visita a la Moneda 2006.JPG Ricardo Lagos 83  Chile PPD President of Chile (2000–2006)
Zlatko lagumdzija.jpg Zlatko Lagumdžija 65  Bosnia and Herzegovina Social Democratic Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001–2002)
Lee Hong Koo.png Lee Hong-koo 65  South Korea NKP South Korea Prime Minister of South Korea (1994–1995)
SthAfrica.ThaboMbeki.01.jpg Thabo Mbeki 78  South Africa ANC President of South Africa (1999–2008)
Rexhep Meidani.jpg Rexhep Meidani 76  Albania Socialist President of Albania (1997–2002)
Benjamin William Mkapa.jpg Benjamin Mkapa 82  Tanzania CCM President of Tanzania (1995–2005)
Mogpow2.jpg Festus Mogae 81  Botswana BDP President of Botswana (1998–2008)
Olusegun Obasanjo DD-SC-07-14396-cropped.jpg Olusegun Obasanjo 84  Nigeria PDP Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria (1976–1979)
President of Nigeria (1999–2007)
Roza Otunbayeva in 2011.jpg Roza Otunbayeva 70  Kyrgyzstan Social Democratic (2007–2010) President of Kyrgyzstan (2010–2011)
Anand Panyarachun.jpg Anand Panyarachun 88  Thailand None Prime Minister of Thailand (1991–1992)
Papandreou handover cropped.jpg George Papandreou 68  Greece Socialist Prime Minister of Greece (2009–2011)
Andrespastranaarango.png Andrés Pastrana 66  Colombia Conservative President of Colombia (1998–2002)
PJPatterson.jpg P.J. Patterson 86  Jamaica PNP (until 2011) Prime Minister of Jamaica (1992–2006)
Romano Prodi in Nova Gorica (2c).jpg Romano Prodi 81  Italy Democratic President of the European Commission (1999–2004)
President of the Council of Ministers of Italy (1996–1998, 2006–2008)
Jorge Quiroga-1.jpg Jorge Quiroga 61  Bolivia PODEMOS President of Bolivia (2001–2002)
RAMOS jan9 2004.jpg Fidel V. Ramos 93  Philippines Lakas President of the Philippines (1992–1998)
José Ramos-Horta Portrait.jpg José Manuel Ramos-Horta 71  East Timor None Prime Minister of East Timor (2006–2007)
President of East Timor (2007–2012)
Pnr.jpg Poul Nyrup Rasmussen 78  Denmark Social Democrats Prime Minister of Denmark (1993–2001)
Mary Robinson at University of California, Santa Barbara 2011Oct21Cropped.jpg Mary Robinson 77  Ireland None President of Ireland (1990–97)
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (1997–2002)
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 2015b (cropped).jpg José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 60  Spain PSOE President of the Government of Spain (2004–2011)
Petre Roman.jpg Petre Roman 74  Romania FSN (1989–1991) Prime Minister of Romania (1989–1991)
Jorge Sampaio 3.jpg Jorge Sampaio 81  Portugal Socialist President of Portugal (1996–2006)
Gonzálo Sánchez de Lozada-Agencia BrasilAntonio Cruz.jpg Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada 90  Bolivia MNR President of Bolivia (1993–1997, 2002–2003)
PresidenteSanguinettti.jpg Julio María Sanguinetti 85  Uruguay PC President of Uruguay (1985–1990, 1995–2000)
Clinton Shipley walk.jpg Jennifer Mary Shipley 69  New Zealand National Prime Minister of New Zealand (1997–1999)
Fouad Sinora.jpg Fuad Siniora 78  Lebanon FM Prime Minister of Lebanon (2005–2009)
Hanna Suchocka, Prime Minister of Poland 1992-1993.jpg Hanna Suchocka 75  Poland UD Prime Minister of Poland (1992–1993)
Boris Tadic 2010.jpg Boris Tadić 63  Serbia Social Democratic President of Serbia (2004–2012)
Alejandro Toledo - Jerusalem 2011.jpg Alejandro Toledo 75  Peru PP President of Peru (2001–2006)
Panama.MartinTorrijos.01.jpg Martín Torrijos 57  Panama PRD President of Panama (2004–2009)
Danilo Türk - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2010 cropped.jpg Danilo Türk 69  Slovenia None President of Slovenia (2007–2012)
No image.svg Cassam Uteem 80  Mauritius MMM President of Mauritius (1992–2002)
Guy Verhofstadt in 2005.jpg Guy Verhofstadt 68  Belgium VLD Prime Minister of Belgium (1999–2008)
Ministru prezidenta tikšanās ar eksprezidenti (4108711953).jpg Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga 83  Latvia None President of Latvia (1999–2007)
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2009.jpg Ernesto Zedillo 69  Mexico PRI President of Mexico (1994–2000)

Member statistics[edit]

Regional background of members:

Political affiliation of members:

Office held (some members have held both):

List of honorary members[edit]

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
Remise du Prix Sakharov à Aung San Suu Kyi Strasbourg 22 octobre 2013-18.jpg Aung San Suu Kyi 75  Myanmar NLD State Counsellor of Myanmar (2016–present)
Jimmy Carter1.jpg Jimmy Carter 96  United States Democratic President of the United States (1977–81)
Enrique V Iglesias 2.jpg Enrique V. Iglesias 91  Uruguay
(unknown) President of the Inter-American Development Bank (1998–2005)
Secretary General of the Iberoamerican General Secretariat (2005–13)
Delors 01.jpg Jacques Delors 95  France Socialist President of the European Commission (1985–95)
Javier Solana (2007).jpg Javier Solana 78  Spain Socialist Secretary General of NATO (1995–99) and High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (1999–2009)

List of members of the constituent foundations[edit]

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
No image.svg Diego Hidalgo 78  Spain (unknown) Founder and President of, and donor to, Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE)
Founding Member and Senior Fellow of the Gorbachev Foundation of North America (GFNA)[10]
No image.svg T. Anthony Jones (unknown) (unknown) (unknown) Vice-President and Executive Director of GFNA[11]
No image.svg George Matthews (unknown)  United States (unknown) Chairman and co-founder of GFNA[12]
No image.svg José Manuel Romero Moreno 80  Spain (unknown) Vice President of FRIDE[13]

List of former members (deceased)[edit]

Name Died Nation Party Office(s) held
Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi 1964.jpg Sadiq al-Mahdi November 26, 2020(2020-11-26) (aged 84)  Sudan Umma Prime Minister of Sudan (1966–1967, 1986–1989)
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar.JPG Javier Pérez de Cuéllar March 4, 2020(2020-03-04) (aged 100)  Peru UPP Secretary-General of the United Nations (1982–1991)
President of the Council of Ministers of Peru (2000–2001)
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie official portrait.jpg Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie September 11, 2019(2019-09-11) (aged 83)  Indonesia Golkar President of Indonesia (1998–1999)
Belisario Betancur.jpg Belisario Betancur December 7, 2018(2018-12-07) (aged 95)  Colombia Conservative President of Colombia (1982–1986)
Wim Kok 1994.jpg Wim Kok October 20, 2018(2018-10-20) (aged 80)  Netherlands Labour Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1994–2002)
Kofi Annan.jpg Kofi Annan August 18, 2018(2018-08-18) (aged 80)  Ghana None Secretary-General of the United Nations (1997–2006)
AlvaroArzuIrigoyenFoto.jpg Álvaro Arzú April 27, 2018(2018-04-27) (aged 72)  Guatemala Unionist President of Guatemala (1996–2000)
Mayor of Guatemala City (2004–2018)
Ruud Lubbers 1985.jpg Ruud Lubbers February 14, 2018(2018-02-14) (aged 78)  Netherlands Christian Democratic Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1982–1994)
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2001–2005)
Quett Masire detail DF-SC-85-12044.JPEG Ketumile Masire June 22, 2017(2017-06-22) (aged 91)  Botswana BDP President of Botswana (1980–1998)
Helmut Kohl 1989.jpg Helmut Kohl 20170616June 16, 2017(2017-06-16) (aged 87)  Germany
 West Germany
Christian Democratic Chancellor of West Germany (1982–1990)
Chancellor of Germany (1990–1998)
James Mancham 2014.jpg James Mancham 20170108January 8, 2017(2017-01-08) (aged 77)  Seychelles Democratic President of Seychelles (1976–1977)
Mário Soares (2003).jpeg Mário Soares 20170107January 7, 2017(2017-01-07) (aged 92)  Portugal Socialist Prime Minister of Portugal (1976–1978, 1983–1985)
President of Portugal (1986–1996)
António Mascarenhas Monteiro crop.jpg António Mascarenhas Monteiro 20160916September 16, 2016(2016-09-16) (aged 72)  Cape Verde MPD President of Cape Verde (1991–2001)
No image.svg Abdul-kareem al-Eryani 20151108November 8, 2015(2015-11-08) (aged 81)  Yemen
 North Yemen
GPC Prime Minister of North Yemen (1980–1983)
Prime Minister of Yemen (1998–2001)
Adolfo Suárez González.jpg Adolfo Suárez 20140323March 23, 2014(2014-03-23) (aged 81)  Spain
MN (until 1977)
UCD (1977–82)
President of the Government of Spain (1976–81)
Tadeusz Mazowiecki 80th birthday.jpg Tadeusz Mazowiecki 20131028October 28, 2013(2013-10-28) (aged 86)  Poland
PR Poland
KO "S" (1980–91)
UD (1991–94)
Prime Minister of Poland (1989–91)
Inder Kumar Gujral 071.jpg Inder Kumar Gujral 20121130November 30, 2012(2012-11-30) (aged 92)  India Janata Dal Prime Minister of India (1997–98)
Václav Havel cut out.jpg Václav Havel 20111218December 18, 2011(2011-12-18) (aged 75)  Czech Republic
OF (1989–93)
None (1993–2004)
President of Czechoslovakia (1989–92)
President of the Czech Republic (1993–2003)
Ferenc Mádl.jpg Ferenc Mádl 20110529May 29, 2011(2011-05-29) (aged 80)  Hungary None President of Hungary (2000–05)
Argentina.RaulAlfonsin.01.jpg Raúl Alfonsín 20090331March 31, 2009(2009-03-31) (aged 82)  Argentina UCR President of Argentina (1983–89)
Visita del Calvo-Sotelo 1976.jpg Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo 20080503May 3, 2008(2008-05-03) (aged 82)  Spain UCD President of the Government of Spain (1981–82)
Lennart Meri 1998.jpg Lennart Meri 20060314March 14, 2006(2006-03-14) (aged 76)  Estonia
 Soviet Union
Isamaa (since 1992) President of Estonia (1992–2001)
Valentín Paniagua 20061016October 16, 2006(2006-10-16) (aged 70)  Peru AC President of Peru (2000–01)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The count of former Prime Ministers includes the former Chancellor of West Germany and former Chancellor of Austria as well as the former Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina and former Taoiseach of Ireland.
  2. ^ a b c "Club de Madrid". European Partnership for Democracy (EPD). Retrieved 2021-04-18.
  3. ^ "Milan Kučan". European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation. 2020-03-16. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  4. ^ "Milan Kučan is the former President of Slovenia, club madrid member". Club de Madrid (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  5. ^ Gelb, Leslie H. (1993-02-07). "Opinion | Foreign Affairs; Sarajevo, Dead and Alive". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  6. ^ "Zlatko Lagumdzija". Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  7. ^ Warsaw Voice Poland Recognizes Kosovo Archived 2010-04-12 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "NATO Who's who?: Carl Bildt". Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  9. ^ "Dayton Accords | international agreement". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  10. ^ "Diego Hidalgo". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  11. ^ "Anthony Jones". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  12. ^ "George Matthews". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  13. ^ "José Manuel Romero Moreno". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.

External links[edit]